Female genital tract
Diseases of female genital tract include inflammation, complications of pregnancy, hormonally induced effects and tumors in which the pathology of the majority of problems involve.
1.The incidence of cervical cancer has been remarkably declining since 50 years ago owing to the effectiveness of the Papanicolaou cytologic test in detecting cervical precancers and biopsy. Human plapillomavirous (HPV) is currently postulated as an main important factor in cervical oncogenesis. Cervical intraepthelial neoplasia (CIN) grade from Ⅰ to Ⅲaccording to severity of abnormality. Adenocarcinoma of the cervix occurs much less commonly than Squamous cell carcinoma , but it’s incidence is increasing.
2. The endometrial adenocarcinoma may result from unopposed oestrogenic acton or in atrophic post-menopausal endometroum. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type. If endometrial carcinomas contain well differentiated squamous cells, the tumors is called adenoacanthoma; If the squamous element appears malignant, the tumors is labeled adenosquamous carcinoma.
3.Gestational trophoblastic disease constitutes a spectrum of tumors and tumor-like lesions which include the hydatidiform mole, ivasive mole, and frankly malignantly choriocarcinoma. All of them are associated with elevated HCG levels.The Hydatdiform mole shows hydropic swelling of chorionc villi and virtual absence or inadequate development of vasculiazation of villi.The trophoblast is hyperplastic and composed of syncytiotroblast and cytotroblast.Invasive mole is defined as invasion of the myometrium by hydroplic chorionic villi. Choriocarcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from the trophoblastl,in which a biphasic pattern of invading cyto-and syncytiotroblast is the characteristic appearance without any villous structures.
4.Ovarian tumors may divided into following categories: eplithelial, germ cell and sex-cord.Risk factor of ovaian cancer are much less clear than other genital tumors. Sex-cord stromal tumors frequently porduce steroid hormones. Ovarian tumours may be solid or cytic, benign, boderline or malignant.
Male genital tract
Neoplasms of male reproductive system mainly constitute testicular tumors and prostatic carcinoma. The former is histologically similar to ovarian tumors 。 The latter is a disease of elderly men and probably hormone (androgen) dependent tumor. Histologically, most lesions are well differentiated adenocarcinoma。 Hematogeneous metastasis occurs chiefly to the bone. Immunohistological techniques to demonstrating prostate-specific antigen （PSA）are helpful to identify metastases as prostatic in origin.
Histologically, breast cancer is divided into noninvasive or cancinoma in situ and invasive cancinoma. Cancinoma in situ was originally classified as ductal or lobular. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most common histologic types of invasive breast carcinoma. Less common types include invasive lobular carcinoma、medullary、 mucinous、 tubular carcinoma and Paget disease. Nuclear estrogen receptor protein may be identified in over half of breast cancer. A slightly smaller proportion also has progesterone receptors. The positivity of these proterins has been used as a predictor of response to hormonal therapy.